1. individuals, characters, folks 替換people , persons
2. positive, favorable, rosy, promising, perfect, pleasurable, excellent, superior, outstanding 替換 good
3. dreadful, unfavorable, poor, adverse, ill 替換bad（如果bad做表語，可以有be lessimpressive替換）
4. an army of, an ocean of, a sea of, a multitude of, ahost of, if not most 替換many
5. a slice of, quite a few 替換 some
6. harbor the idea that, take the attitude that, hold theview that, it is widely shared that, it is universally acknowledged that 替換think
7. affair, business, matter 替換thing
8. shared 替換common
9. reap huge fruits 替換 get many benefits
10. for my part ,from my own perspective 替換in my opinion
11. Increasing（ly）, growing 替換 more and more（注意沒有growingly這種形式。所以當修飾名詞時用increasing/growing修飾形容詞，副詞用increasingly）
12. little if anything或little or nothing 替換 hardly
13. beneficial, rewarding 替換 helpful
14. shopper, client, consumer, purchaser 替換customer
15. overwhelmingly, exceedingly, extremely, intensely 替換very
16. hardly necessary, hardly inevitable…替換unnecessary, avoidable
17. indispensable 替換 necessary
18. sth appeals to sb, sth exerts a tremendousfascination on sb 替換sb take interest in /sb. be interestedin
19. capture one's attention 替換attract one's attention
20. facet, demension, sphere 替換aspet
21. be indicative of, be suggestive of, be fearful of 替換indicate,suggest,fear
22. give rise to, lead to, result in, trigger 替換cause
23. There are several reasons behind sth 替換…reasonsfor sth
24. desire 替換want
25. pour attention into 替換 pay attention to
26. bear in mind that 替換 remember
27. enjoy, possess 替換 have（注意process是過程的意思）
28. interaction 替換 communication
29. frown on sth 替換 be against ,disagree with sth
30. as an example 替換 for example, forinstance
31. next to / virtually impossible 替換nearly / almost impossible
32. regarding / concerning 替換 about
33. crucial /paramount 替換 important
34. 第一（in the firstplace/the first and foremost）；
第二（thereis one more point, I should touch on, that…）；
第三（thelast but not the least）
35. assiduous 替換 hard-working
36. arduous 替換 difficult
37. underdeveloped / financially-challenged 替換poor（因為poor通常含有貶義）
38. demonstrate / manifest 替換 show
39. invariably 替換 always
40. perilous / hazardous替換 dangerous
41. formidable 替換 difficult
42. quintessential 替換 typical（舉例時常用，例如：a quintessential example should be cited that=for example; forinstance）
43. distinguished 替換 famous
44. feasible 替換 possible
45. consequently, accordingly替換so
46. 通常，由數據推斷出一定的結論，用Resultsindicate, infer, suggest, imply that……
Much of the research in sexual selection in the last twodecades has examined how a female’s preference that does not influence herimmediate reproductive success can still evolve if it is genetically correlatedwith another character under direct selection.（不要每次寫到研究時總用study，可以用些其它的詞匯，比如examine，work）
Two hypotheses for female preference evolution—runawaysexual selection and good genes selection—state thatpreferences evolve indirectly because they are genetically correlated with maletraits that are under direct selection; thatis, the preferences themselves are not under direct selection.（在引述別人的觀點時，如果不能完全同意，使用state 比show更加中立些）
Studies of receiver biases suggest that such analogiesmight not be broadly applicable.（suggest又一種較為客觀的引述觀點的表達方法）
Burley argued that the preference for red beaks isadaptive because it indicates male health, and this preference is thentransferred to leg-band color.（argue引用別人觀點的又一表述）
According to the anti-monotony hypothesis, habituationplays an important role in the evolution of complex vocalizations in songbirds:Increased song complexity reduces habituation of neighboring males and courtingfemales.（根據…）
Previous studies of acoustic and bioluminescentinteractions had emphasized potential advantages to group-signalingorganization, such as minimizing predation, preserving species-specific signalcharacters, or increasing the attractiveness of the group.（帶有小小的強調）
48.常見的連接詞有: however,also, in addition, consequently, afterwards, moreover, furthermore, further,although, unlike, in contrast, similarly, unfortunately, alternatively, parallel results, in order to,despite, for example, compared with, other results, thus, therefore……用好連接詞能使文章層次清楚，意思明確。比如，敘述有時間順序的事件或文獻，最早的文獻可用AA advocated it for the first time.接下來可用ThenBB further demonstrated that. 再接下來，可用Afterwards, CC……如果還有，可用More recent studies by DD……
1. In this paper, we focus on the need for…
2. This paper proceeds as follow.
3. The structure of the paper is as follows.
4. In this paper, we shall first briefly introduce fuzzysets and related concepts.
5. To begin with we will provide a brief background onthe…
1. This will be followed by a description of the fuzzynature of the problem and a detailed presentation of how the requiredmembership functions are defined.
2. Details on xx and xx are discussed in later sections.
3. In the next section, after a statement of the basicproblem, various situations involving possibility knowledge are investigated:first, an entirely possibility model is proposed; then the cases of a fuzzyservice time with stochastic arrivals and non-fuzzy service rule is studied;lastly, fuzzy service rule are considered.
1. This review is followed by an introduction.
2. A brief summary of some of the relevant concepts inxxx and xxx is presented in Section 2.
3. In the next section, a brief review of the .... isgiven.
4. In the next section, a short review of ... is givenwith special regard to ...
5. Section 2 reviews relevant research related to xx.
6. Section 1.1 briefly surveys the motivation for amethodology of action, while 1.2 looks at the difficulties posed by thecomplexity of systems and outlines the need for development of possibilitymethods.
1. Section 1 defines the notion of robustness, and arguesfor its importance.
2. Section 1 devoted to the basic aspects of the FLCdecision making logic.
3. Section 2 gives the background of the problem whichincludes xxx
4. Section 2 discusses some problems with and approachesto, natural language understanding.
5. Section 2 explains how flexibility which often ... canbe expressed in terms of fuzzy time window.
6. Section 3 discusses the aspects of fuzzy set theorythat are used in the…
7. Section 3 describes the system itself in a generalway, including the…and also discusses how to evaluatesystem performance.
8. Section 3 describes a new measure of xx.
9. Section 3 demonstrates the use of fuzzy possibilitytheory in the analysis of xx.
10. Section 3 is a fine description of fuzzy formulationof human decision.
11. Section 3, is developed to the modeling and processingof fuzzy decision rules
12. The main idea of the FLC is described in Section 3while Section 4describes the xx strategies.
13. Section 3 and 4 show experimental studies forverifying the proposed model.
14. Section 4 discusses a previous fuzzy set basedapproach to cost variance investigation.
15. Section 4 gives a specific example of xxx.
16. Section 4 is the experimental study to make a fuzzymodel of memory process.
17. Section 4 contains a discussion of the implication ofthe results of Section2 and 3.
18. Section 4 applies this fuzzy measure to the analysisof xx and illustrate its use on experimental data.
19. Section 5 presents the primary results of the paper:a fuzzy set model.
20. Section 5 contains some conclusions plus some ideasfor further work.
21. Section 6 illustrates the model with an example.
22. Various ways of justification and the reasons fortheir choice are discussed very briefly in Section 2.
23. In Section 2 are presented the block diagramexpression of a whole model of human DM system.
24. In Section 2 we shall list a collection of basicassumptions which a... scheme must satisfy.
25. In Section 2 of this paper, we present representationand uniqueness theorems for the fundamental measurement of fuzziness when thedomain of discourse is order dense.
26. In Section 3, we describe the preliminary results ofan empirical study currently in progress to verify the measurement model and toconstruct membership functions.
27. In Section 5 is analyzed the inference processthrough the two kinds of inference experiments...
1. In this section, the characteristics and environmentunder which MRP is designed are described.
2. We will provide in this section basic terminologiesand notations which are necessary for the understanding of subsequent results. NextSection…
3. The next section describes the mathematics that goesinto the computer implementation of such fuzzy logic statements.
4. However, it is cumbersome for this purpose and inpractical applications the formulae were rearranged and simplified as discussedin the next section.
5. The three components will be described in the next twosection, and an example of xx analysis of a computer information system willthen illustrate their use.
6. We can interpret the results of Experiments I and IIas in the following sections.
7. The next section summarizes the method in a form thatis useful for arguments based on xx.
1. This paper concludes with a discussion of futureresearch consideration in section 5.
2. Section 5 summarizes the results of thisinvestigation.
3. Section 5 gives the conclusions and future directionsof research.
4. Section 7 provides a summary and a discussion of someextensions of the paper.
5. Finally, conclusions and future work are summarized.
6. The basic questions posed above are then discussed andconclusions are drawn.
7. Section 7 is the conclusion of the paper.
1. A basic problem in the design of xx is presented bythe choice of a xx rate for the measurement of experimental variables.
2. This paper examines a new measure of xx in xx based onfuzzy mathematics which overcomes the difficulties found in other xx measures.
3. This paper describes a system for the analysis of thexx.
4. The method involves the construction of xx from fuzzyrelations.
5. The procedure is useful in analyzing how groups reacha decision.
6. The technique used is to employ a newly developed andversatile xx algorithm.
7. The usefulness of xx is also considered.
8. A brief methodology used in xx is discussed.
9. The analysis is useful in xx and xx problem.
10. A model is developed for a xx analysis using fuzzymatrices.
11. Algorithms to combine these estimates and produce axx are presented and justified.
12. The use of the method is discussed and an example isgiven.
13. Results of an experimental application of this xxanalysis procedure are given to illustrate the proposed technique.
14. This paper analyses problems in
15. This paper outlines the functions carried out by…
16. This paper includes an illustration of the…
17. This paper provides an overview and informationuseful for approaching
18. Emphasis is placed on the construction of a criterionfunction by which the xx in achieving a hierarchical system of objectives areevaluated.
19. The main emphasis is placed on the problem of xx.
20. Our proposed model is verified through experimental study.
21. The experimental results reveal interesting examplesof fuzzy phases of: xx, xx
22. The compatibility of a project in terms of cost, andxx are likewise represented by linguistic variables.
23. A didactic example is included to illustrate thecomputational procedure.
1. Over the course of the past 30 years,…hasemerged form intuitive
2. Technological revolutions have recently hit theindustrial world
3. The advent of ... systems for has had a significantimpact on the
4. The development of ... is explored
5. During the past decade, the theory of fuzzy sets hasdeveloped in a variety of directions
6.The concept of xx was investigated quite intensively inrecent years
7. There has been a turning point in ... methodology inaccordance with the advent of ...
8. A major concern in ... today is to continue toimprove...
9. A xx is a latecomer in the part representation arena.
10. At the time of this writing, there is still nostandard way of xx
11. Although a lot of effort is being spent on improvingthese weaknesses, the efficient and effective method has yet to be developed.
12. The pioneer work can be traced to xx.
13. To date, none of the methods developed is perfect andall are far from ready to be used in commercial systems.
Objective / Goal / Purpose
1. The purpose of the inference engine can be outlined asfollows:
2. The ultimate goal of the xx system is to allow the non-expertsto utilize the existing knowledge in the area of manual handling of loads, andto provide intelligent, computer aided instruction for xxx.
3. The paper concerns the development of a xx
4. The scope of this research lies in
5. The main theme of the paper is the application of rulebased decision making.
6. These objectives are to be met with such thoroughnessand confidence as to permit ...
7. The objectives of the ... operations study are asfollows
8. The primary purpose/consideration/objective of
9. The ultimate goal of this concept is to provide
10. The main objective of such a ... system is to
11. The aim of this paper is to provide methods toconstruct such probability distribution.
12. In order to achieve these objectives, an xx must meetthe following requirements
13. In order to take advantage of their similarity
14. more research is still required before final goal of... can be completed
15. In this trial, the objective is to generate...
16. for the sake of concentrating on ... research issues
17. A major goal of this report is to extend theutilization of a recently developed procedure for the xx.
18. For an illustrative purpose, four well known ORproblems are studied in presence of fuzzy data: xx.
19. A major thrust of the paper is to discuss approachesand strategies for structuring…methods
20. This illustration points out the need to specify
21. The ultimate goal is both descriptive andprescriptive.
1. A wealth of information is to be found in thestatistics literature, for example, regarding xx
2. A considerable amount of research has been done…during the last decade
3. A great number of studies report on the treatment ofuncertainties associated with xx.
4. There is considerable amount of literature on planning
5. However, these studies do not provide much attentionto uncertainty in xx.
6. Since then, the subject has been extensively exploredand it is still under investigation as well inmethodological aspects as in concrete applications.
7. Many research studies have been carried out on thistopic.
8. Problem of xx draws recently more and more attentionof system analysis.
9. Attempts to resolve this dilemma have resulted in thedevelopment of
10. Many complex processes unfortunately, do not yield tothis design procedure and have, therefore, not yet been automated.
11. Most of the methods developed so far aredeterministic and /or probabilistic in nature.
12. The central issue in all these studies is to
13. The problem of xx has been studied by otherinvestigators, however, these studies have been based upon classicalstatistical approaches.
14. Applied ... techniques to
15. Characterized the ... system as
16. Developed an algorithm to
17. Developed a system called ... which
18. Uses an iterative algorithm to deduce
19. Emphasized the need to
20. Identifies six key issues surrounding high technology
21. A comprehensive study of the... has been undertaken
22. Much work has been reported recently in these filed
23.Proposed/Presented/State that/Described/Illustrated/Indicated/Has shown / showed/Address/Highlights
24. Point out that the problem of
25. A study on ...was done / developed by 
26. Previous work, such as  and , deal only with
27. The approach taken by  is
28. The system developed by  consists
29. A paper relevant to this research was published by 
30. 's model requires consideration of...
31. ' model draws attention to evolution in humandevelopment
32. 's model focuses on...
33. Little research has been conducted in applying ... to
34. The published information that is relevant to thisresearch...
35. This study further shows that
36. Their work is based on the principle of
37. More history of ... can be found in xx et al.
38. Studies have been completed to established
39. The ...studies indicated that
40. Though application of xx in the field of xx hasproliferated in recent years, effort in analyzing xx, especially xx, islacking.
Problem / Issue / Question
1. Unfortunately, real-world engineering problems such asmanufacturing planning do not fit well with this narrowly defined model. Theytend to span broad activities and require consideration of multiple aspects.
2. Remedy / solve / alleviate these problems
3. ... is a difficult problem, yet to be adequatelyresolved
4. Two major problems have yet to be addressed
5. An unanswered question
6. This problem in essence involves using x to obtain asolution.
7. An additional research issue to be tackled is ....
8. Some important issues in developing a ... system arediscussed
9. The three prime issues can be summarized
10. The situation leads to the problem of how todetermine the ...
11. There have been many attempts to
12. It is expected to be serious barrier to
13. It offers a simple solution in a limited domain for acomplex