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學術會議

    寫作技巧丨SCI經典詞+常用句型
  • 列舉了在SCI寫作中常用詞的高級表達與用法以及文章不同結構處的經典句型。

    一、經典替換詞

    1. individuals, characters, folks 替換people , persons

    2. positive, favorable, rosy, promising, perfect, pleasurable, excellent, superioroutstanding 替換 good

    3. dreadful, unfavorable, poor, adverse, ill 替換bad(如果bad做表語,可以有be lessimpressive替換)

    4. an army of, an ocean of, a sea of, a multitude of, ahost of, if not most 替換many

    5. a slice of, quite a few 替換 some

    6. harbor the idea that, take the attitude that, hold theview that, it is widely shared that, it is universally acknowledged that 替換think

    7. affair, business, matter 替換thing

    8. shared 替換common

    9. reap huge fruits 替換 get many benefits

    10. for my part ,from my own perspective 替換in my opinion

    11. Increasing(ly), growing 替換 more and more(注意沒有growingly這種形式。所以當修飾名詞時用increasing/growing修飾形容詞,副詞用increasingly)

    12. little if anything或little or nothing 替換 hardly

    13. beneficial, rewarding 替換 helpful

    14. shopper, client, consumer, purchaser 替換customer

    15. overwhelmingly, exceedingly, extremely, intensely 替換very

    16. hardly necessary, hardly inevitable…替換unnecessary, avoidable

    17. indispensable 替換 necessary

    18. sth appeals to sb, sth exerts a tremendousfascination on sb 替換sb take interest in /sb. be interestedin

    19. capture one's attention 替換attract one's attention

    20. facet, demension, sphere 替換aspet

    21. be indicative of, be suggestive of, be fearful of 替換indicate,suggest,fear

    22. give rise to, lead to, result in, trigger 替換cause

    23. There are several reasons behind sth 替換…reasonsfor sth

    24. desire 替換want

    25. pour attention into 替換 pay attention to

    26. bear in mind that 替換 remember

    27. enjoy, possess 替換 have(注意process是過程的意思)

    28. interaction 替換 communication

    29. frown on sth 替換 be against ,disagree with sth

    30. as an example 替換 for example, forinstance

    31. next to / virtually impossible 替換nearly / almost impossible

    32. regarding / concerning 替換 about

    33. crucial /paramount 替換 important

    34. 第一(in the firstplace/the first and foremost);

    第二(thereis one more point, I should touch on, that…);

    第三(thelast but not the least)

    35. assiduous 替換 hard-working

    36. arduous 替換 difficult

    37. underdeveloped / financially-challenged 替換poor(因為poor通常含有貶義)

    38. demonstrate / manifest 替換 show

    39. invariably 替換 always

    40. perilous / hazardous替換 dangerous

    41. formidable 替換 difficult

    42. quintessential 替換 typical(舉例時常用,例如:a quintessential example should be cited that=for example; forinstance)

    43. distinguished 替換 famous

    44. feasible 替換 possible

    45. consequently, accordingly替換so

    46. 通常,由數據推斷出一定的結論,用Resultsindicate, infer, suggest, imply that……

    47. 最常見的引述別人觀點的詞匯

    Much of the research in sexual selection in the last twodecades has examined how a female’s preference that does not influence herimmediate reproductive success can still evolve if it is genetically correlatedwith another character under direct selection.(不要每次寫到研究時總用study,可以用些其它的詞匯,比如examine,work)

    Two hypotheses for female preference evolution—runawaysexual selection and good genes selection—state thatpreferences evolve indirectly because they are genetically correlated with maletraits that are under direct selection;  thatis, the preferences themselves are not under direct selection.(在引述別人的觀點時,如果不能完全同意,使用state 比show更加中立些)

    Studies of receiver biases suggest that such analogiesmight not be broadly applicable.(suggest又一種較為客觀的引述觀點的表達方法)

    Burley argued that the preference for red beaks isadaptive because it indicates male health, and this preference is thentransferred to leg-band color.(argue引用別人觀點的又一表述)

    According to the anti-monotony hypothesis, habituationplays an important role in the evolution of complex vocalizations in songbirds:Increased song complexity reduces habituation of neighboring males and courtingfemales.(根據…)

    Previous studies of acoustic and bioluminescentinteractions had emphasized potential advantages to group-signalingorganization, such as minimizing predation, preserving species-specific signalcharacters, or increasing the attractiveness of the group.(帶有小小的強調)

    48.常見的連接詞有: however,also, in addition, consequently, afterwards, moreover, furthermore, further,although, unlike, in contrast, similarly, unfortunately,  alternatively, parallel results, in order to,despite, for example, compared with, other results, thus, therefore……用好連接詞能使文章層次清楚,意思明確。比如,敘述有時間順序的事件或文獻,最早的文獻可用AA advocated it for the first time.接下來可用ThenBB further demonstrated that. 再接下來,可用Afterwards, CC……如果還有,可用More recent studies by DD……


     二、常用句型

    Beginning 

    1. In this paper, we focus on the need for…

    2. This paper proceeds as follow.

    3. The structure of the paper is as follows.

    4. In this paper, we shall first briefly introduce fuzzysets and related concepts.

    5. To begin with we will provide a brief background onthe…

    Introduction 

    1. This will be followed by a description of the fuzzynature of the problem and a detailed presentation of how the requiredmembership functions are defined.

    2. Details on xx and xx are discussed in later sections.

    3. In the next section, after a statement of the basicproblem, various situations involving possibility knowledge are investigated:first, an entirely possibility model is proposed; then the cases of a fuzzyservice time with stochastic arrivals and non-fuzzy service rule is studied;lastly, fuzzy service rule are considered.

    Review 

    1. This review is followed by an introduction.

    2. A brief summary of some of the relevant concepts inxxx and xxx is presented in Section 2.

    3. In the next section, a brief review of the .... isgiven.

    4. In the next section, a short review of ... is givenwith special regard to ...

    5. Section 2 reviews relevant research related to xx.

    6. Section 1.1 briefly surveys the motivation for amethodology of action, while 1.2 looks at the difficulties posed by thecomplexity of systems and outlines the need for development of possibilitymethods.

    Body 

    1. Section 1 defines the notion of robustness, and arguesfor its importance.

    2. Section 1 devoted to the basic aspects of the FLCdecision making logic.

    3. Section 2 gives the background of the problem whichincludes xxx

    4. Section 2 discusses some problems with and approachesto, natural language understanding.

    5. Section 2 explains how flexibility which often ... canbe expressed in terms of fuzzy time window.

    6. Section 3 discusses the aspects of fuzzy set theorythat are used in the…

    7. Section 3 describes the system itself in a generalway, including the…and also discusses how to evaluatesystem performance.

    8. Section 3 describes a new measure of xx.

    9. Section 3 demonstrates the use of fuzzy possibilitytheory in the analysis of xx.

    10. Section 3 is a fine description of fuzzy formulationof human decision.

    11. Section 3, is developed to the modeling and processingof fuzzy decision rules

    12. The main idea of the FLC is described in Section 3while Section 4describes the xx strategies.

    13. Section 3 and 4 show experimental studies forverifying the proposed model.

    14. Section 4 discusses a previous fuzzy set basedapproach to cost variance investigation.

    15. Section 4 gives a specific example of xxx.

    16. Section 4 is the experimental study to make a fuzzymodel of memory process.

    17. Section 4 contains a discussion of the implication ofthe results of Section2 and 3.

    18. Section 4 applies this fuzzy measure to the analysisof xx and illustrate its use on experimental data.

    19. Section 5 presents the primary results of the paper:a fuzzy set model.

    20. Section 5 contains some conclusions plus some ideasfor further work.

    21. Section 6 illustrates the model with an example.

    22. Various ways of justification and the reasons fortheir choice are discussed very briefly in Section 2.

    23. In Section 2 are presented the block diagramexpression of a whole model of human DM system.

    24. In Section 2 we shall list a collection of basicassumptions which a... scheme must satisfy.

    25. In Section 2 of this paper, we present representationand uniqueness theorems for the fundamental measurement of fuzziness when thedomain of discourse is order dense.

    26. In Section 3, we describe the preliminary results ofan empirical study currently in progress to verify the measurement model and toconstruct membership functions.

    27. In Section 5 is analyzed the inference processthrough the two kinds of inference experiments...

    This Section 

    1. In this section, the characteristics and environmentunder which MRP is designed are described.

    2. We will provide in this section basic terminologiesand notations which are necessary for the understanding of subsequent results. NextSection…

    3. The next section describes the mathematics that goesinto the computer implementation of such fuzzy logic statements.

    4. However, it is cumbersome for this purpose and inpractical applications the formulae were rearranged and simplified as discussedin the next section.

    5. The three components will be described in the next twosection, and an example of xx analysis of a computer information system willthen illustrate their use.

    6. We can interpret the results of Experiments I and IIas in the following sections.

    7. The next section summarizes the method in a form thatis useful for arguments based on xx.

    Summary 

    1. This paper concludes with a discussion of futureresearch consideration in section 5.

    2. Section 5 summarizes the results of thisinvestigation.

    3. Section 5 gives the conclusions and future directionsof research.

    4. Section 7 provides a summary and a discussion of someextensions of the paper.

    5. Finally, conclusions and future work are summarized.

    6. The basic questions posed above are then discussed andconclusions are drawn.

    7. Section 7 is the conclusion of the paper.

    Abstract 

    1. A basic problem in the design of xx is presented bythe choice of a xx rate for the measurement of experimental variables.

    2. This paper examines a new measure of xx in xx based onfuzzy mathematics which overcomes the difficulties found in other xx measures.

    3. This paper describes a system for the analysis of thexx.

    4. The method involves the construction of xx from fuzzyrelations.

    5. The procedure is useful in analyzing how groups reacha decision.

    6. The technique used is to employ a newly developed andversatile xx algorithm.

    7. The usefulness of xx is also considered.

    8. A brief methodology used in xx is discussed.

    9. The analysis is useful in xx and xx problem.

    10. A model is developed for a xx analysis using fuzzymatrices.

    11. Algorithms to combine these estimates and produce axx are presented and justified.

    12. The use of the method is discussed and an example isgiven.

    13. Results of an experimental application of this xxanalysis procedure are given to illustrate the proposed technique.

    14. This paper analyses problems in

    15. This paper outlines the functions carried out by…

    16. This paper includes an illustration of the…

    17. This paper provides an overview and informationuseful for approaching

    18. Emphasis is placed on the construction of a criterionfunction by which the xx in achieving a hierarchical system of objectives areevaluated.

    19. The main emphasis is placed on the problem of xx.

    20. Our proposed model is verified through experimental study.

    21. The experimental results reveal interesting examplesof fuzzy phases of: xx, xx

    22. The compatibility of a project in terms of cost, andxx are likewise represented by linguistic variables.

    23. A didactic example is included to illustrate thecomputational procedure.

    Time 

    1. Over the course of the past 30 years,…hasemerged form intuitive

    2. Technological revolutions have recently hit theindustrial world

    3. The advent of ... systems for has had a significantimpact on the

    4. The development of ... is explored

    5. During the past decade, the theory of fuzzy sets hasdeveloped in a variety of directions

    6.The concept of xx was investigated quite intensively inrecent years

    7. There has been a turning point in ... methodology inaccordance with the advent of ...

    8. A major concern in ... today is to continue toimprove...

    9. A xx is a latecomer in the part representation arena.

    10. At the time of this writing, there is still nostandard way of xx

    11. Although a lot of effort is being spent on improvingthese weaknesses, the efficient and effective method has yet to be developed.

    12. The pioneer work can be traced to xx.

    13. To date, none of the methods developed is perfect andall are far from ready to be used in commercial systems.

    Objective / Goal / Purpose 

    1. The purpose of the inference engine can be outlined asfollows:

    2. The ultimate goal of the xx system is to allow the non-expertsto utilize the existing knowledge in the area of manual handling of loads, andto provide intelligent, computer aided instruction for xxx.

    3. The paper concerns the development of a xx

    4. The scope of this research lies in

    5. The main theme of the paper is the application of rulebased decision making.

    6. These objectives are to be met with such thoroughnessand confidence as to permit ...

    7. The objectives of the ... operations study are asfollows

    8. The primary purpose/consideration/objective of

    9. The ultimate goal of this concept is to provide

    10. The main objective of such a ... system is to

    11. The aim of this paper is to provide methods toconstruct such probability distribution.

    12. In order to achieve these objectives, an xx must meetthe following requirements

    13. In order to take advantage of their similarity

    14. more research is still required before final goal of... can be completed

    15. In this trial, the objective is to generate...

    16. for the sake of concentrating on ... research issues

    17. A major goal of this report is to extend theutilization of a recently developed procedure for the xx.

    18. For an illustrative purpose, four well known ORproblems are studied in presence of fuzzy data: xx.

    19. A major thrust of the paper is to discuss approachesand strategies for structuring…methods

    20. This illustration points out the need to specify

    21. The ultimate goal is both descriptive andprescriptive.

    Literature Review 

    1. A wealth of information is to be found in thestatistics literature, for example, regarding xx

    2. A considerable amount of research has been done…during the last decade

    3. A great number of studies report on the treatment ofuncertainties associated with xx.

    4. There is considerable amount of literature on planning

    5. However, these studies do not provide much attentionto uncertainty in xx.

    6. Since then, the subject has been extensively exploredand it is still under investigation as well inmethodological aspects as in concrete applications.

    7. Many research studies have been carried out on thistopic.

    8. Problem of xx draws recently more and more attentionof system analysis.

    9. Attempts to resolve this dilemma have resulted in thedevelopment of

    10. Many complex processes unfortunately, do not yield tothis design procedure and have, therefore, not yet been automated.

    11. Most of the methods developed so far aredeterministic and /or probabilistic in nature.

    12. The central issue in all these studies is to

    13. The problem of xx has been studied by otherinvestigators, however, these studies have been based upon classicalstatistical approaches.

    14. Applied ... techniques to

    15. Characterized the ... system as

    16. Developed an algorithm to

    17. Developed a system called ... which

    18. Uses an iterative algorithm to deduce

    19. Emphasized the need to

    20. Identifies six key issues surrounding high technology

    21. A comprehensive study of the... has been undertaken

    22. Much work has been reported recently in these filed

    23.Proposed/Presented/State that/Described/Illustrated/Indicated/Has shown / showed/Address/Highlights

    24. Point out that the problem of

    25. A study on ...was done / developed by []

    26. Previous work, such as [] and [], deal only with

    27. The approach taken by [] is

    28. The system developed by [] consists

    29. A paper relevant to this research was published by []

    30. []'s model requires consideration of...

    31. []' model draws attention to evolution in humandevelopment

    32. []'s model focuses on...

    33. Little research has been conducted in applying ... to

    34. The published information that is relevant to thisresearch...

    35. This study further shows that

    36. Their work is based on the principle of

    37. More history of ... can be found in xx et al.

    38. Studies have been completed to established

    39. The ...studies indicated that

    40. Though application of xx in the field of xx hasproliferated in recent years, effort in analyzing xx, especially xx, islacking.

    Problem / Issue / Question 

    1. Unfortunately, real-world engineering problems such asmanufacturing planning do not fit well with this narrowly defined model. Theytend to span broad activities and require consideration of multiple aspects.

    2. Remedy / solve / alleviate these problems

    3. ... is a difficult problem, yet to be adequatelyresolved

    4. Two major problems have yet to be addressed

    5. An unanswered question

    6. This problem in essence involves using x to obtain asolution.

    7. An additional research issue to be tackled is ....

    8. Some important issues in developing a ... system arediscussed

    9. The three prime issues can be summarized

    10. The situation leads to the problem of how todetermine the ...

    11. There have been many attempts to

    12. It is expected to be serious barrier to

    13. It offers a simple solution in a limited domain for acomplex

    來源:北京科學技術期刊學會

  • 發布日期: 2020-08-26  瀏覽: 422
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